Nature is considered as the mother of diversity. It would be astonishing to note that, as on date, earth consist of approximately 8.7 million species. Each species has got its own unique characteristics that makes it different from others. These distinctive features, blessed by Nature, guide them towards their existence as well as extinction. As a result, those who were strong and large overruled the weak and small, and those who had the attitude of being fierce mastered the mild and gentle.

Even in the case of human beings, diversity was not an alien. The focus was given not only to physical and psychological differences, but also extended to various cultural and social dimensions.This eventually led to the formation of groups among people with similar attributes. As a result, the tall and short, white and black, rich and poor, clever and dumb, good and bad, were all grouped into different categories. The geographical, religious, educational, societal and cultural factors added fuel to the fire. Various behavioral norms as well as rules and regulations were formulated to accommodate the so called variances. In short, a living system evolved where people are judged based on the differences in various attributes associated with them. The world gradually got accustomed to the fact that diversity is an inevitable part of life and differential treatment is not discriminatory in nature. Considering all the dissimilarities that exist among people, the pertinent questions to be raised at this moment are, ‘Are people, in any way similar?’ If so ‘How similar are they?’

Exploring an answer to these questions is the primary objective of the chapter. An in-depth examination is done in the areas of genetics, personality, perception, behavior, learning, intentions, and culture,in order to understand the influence of these factors towards diversity. Number of research studies explaining about various traits that distinguish one person from another, and contribute towards creating an environment of discrimination and inequality, are critically evaluated for making proper inferences. From the various factors that contributes towards diversity and discrimination, the chapter narrows down its focus to human behavior. Finally efforts are taken on tracing parities within each behavioral dimension representing human traits, which stands unexplored for various reasons.

Hope you read the chapter, assess all the concepts explained, and endorse the fact that the human beings possess equal number of positive and negative traits.

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